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Semantics And Pragmatics


Is study of meaning of word, phrases, and sentences.

In linguistics semantics we are focus on meaning conveyed by used of word and sentences of languages.

Conceptual versus associative meaning, When we are investigated the linguistics of word, we usually interested in chaterizing the conceptual meaning, and less concerned with associative or stylistic meaning word.

Semantics feature

Semantics would be helpful to understand mean of accounting for the oddness.

Semantics roles

We can describe the sentences whit the semantics role and indentity the the small number of semantics for theses noun phrases. Agent, Theme and instrument Agent is the entity that perform the action Theme is the entity that is involved in or affected the action Instrument is if the agent uses another entity in performing an action that other entity fills the role of is instrument Experiencer, location, source, goal Experiencer is an agent that has feeling , perception, and state.

Lexical relations

Lexical relations is the procedure has also been used in the semantics description of language, so you are characterizing the meaning of word, not in the term of its component but in the term of relationship to other word. Synonym : two or more form with very closely related meaning

Antonymy : two form opposite meaning

Hyponym : when the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of other

Prototypes : the concept of prototypes is help explan the certain word like, furniture is more quicker we recognize chair as exampler than bench or stool.

Homophones ; two or more word have different form but have the same pronounciation

Homonym : is used when one form (written and spoken) have two or more related meaning

Polysemy : one form of word having multiple meaning which can be defined as one form

Metonymy ; a nother type of similarity that besides of human experiences that close conection can based simply on a container or contents relations.

Collocation : are a pair of some things joined word such as salt and pepper and husband and wife that frequently occurring together.

Pragmatics

The study of intended speaker meaning Invisible meaning How we recognize what is meant even whe it isn’t actually said or written.

Context, The Co-text of word is the set of other word used in the same phrases and sentences. We know what word mean on basis of another type of context bes described as physical context.

Deixis ,  There are some word in languges that cannot be interpreted al all unless the physical context, especially the physical context of speaker is known well as most pronoun like this, yesterday, etc. so people need deictic expressions such as person deixis and time deixis.

References

References is the use of word that refer to people and things was simple matter. Anaphora When we eatablish a referent and subsequently refer to sama object. The first mention is called antecedent Presupposition What the speaker assumes is true or is known by hearer can be described as presupposition Speech acts Indirect speech acts cover actions such as actions, requesting, commanding, questioning, informing.

Politeness

This is the emotional and social sense of self that every person has and expect everyone else to recognize. Politeness is showing awareness of another person’s face.

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